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Joint Replacement

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Home / Medical Specialities / Orthopedic Surgery / Joint Replacement

A total knee and hip joint replacement are surgical procedures that involves replacing the worn-out or damaged joints of the knee and the hip with a prosthesis (artificial joint) made of metal, or plastic. The parts of a knee joint that can be replaced include the femur (the lower part of the thighbone), tibia (the upper part of the shin bone) and patella (the back portion of the kneecap). The parts of the prosthetic hip joint consist of a stem, the ball, and a cup.

A total knee and hip joint replacement are recommended for patients with severely damaged knee and hip joints due to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, or injury. Arthritis stiffens the joints making it painful and harder to walk even for shorter distances. The joint replacement of the knee and hip are usually considered when therapies like medications, exercises, or other therapies have not been helpful.

Total Knee Replacement: Surgery for replacing the knee joint (also known as total knee arthroplasty) is performed either under general anaesthesia, or spinal or epidural anaesthesia. The knee is opened using an incision of 8 – 10 inches long. The kneecap is moved so that the damaged part of the cartilage at the end of the thighbone and shin bone can be cut and replaced with a metal prosthesis. In between the metal prosthesis, a medical-grade plastic spacer is inserted for a smooth gliding surface. The back portion of the kneecap is replaced with the prosthesis which is usually made of strong plastic.

Total Hip Replacement: Surgery for replacing the hip joint (also known as total hip arthroplasty) is performed either under general anaesthesia or spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Traditionally, hip replacement surgery uses longer incisions over the hip joint. In a more advanced approach, few smaller incisions on the hip joint are made to access the hip joint (minimally invasive hip replacement). The damaged cartilage and bone are removed and replaced with hip prosthetics made of metal, plastic, or ceramic. The stem is fitted into the femur or the thigh bone, a ball or the head joint is fixed onto the stem and a cup is placed inside the hip joint socket.

Shoulder Replacement: Is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the glenohumeral joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant. Such joint replacement surgery generally is conducted to relieve arthritis pain or fix severe physical joint damage. Shoulder replacement surgery is an option for treatment of severe arthritis of the shoulder joint. Arthritis is a condition that affects the cartilage of the joints. As the cartilage lining wears away, the protective lining between the bones is lost. When this happens, painful bone-on-bone arthritis develops. Severe shoulder arthritis is quite painful, and can cause restriction of motion. While this may be tolerated with some medications and lifestyle adjustments, there may come a time when surgical treatment is necessary.

Last update date: 05-06-2024

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